Heat-Related Emergency

What are Heat-Related Emergencies?

Heat-related emergencies occur when a person's body is unable to cool itself through sweating and heat loss into the air. It is most common when a person becomes dehydrated, and there is high temperature with high humidity and no breeze. The people most at risk are those who work or exercise outdoors in the heat, such as athletes, laborers, and soldiers, or those who have poor tolerance to heat, such as the elderly, the very young, alcoholics, or people who are obese or have medical problems.

It's key to recognize a heat-related emergency and treat it before it becomes life-threatening. There are 3 types of heat-related emergencies, each heat-related condition is progressively more serious.

  1. Heat Cramps: Painful muscle cramps in the abdomen, arms and legs, usually during strenuous activity; heavy sweating.
    • Treatment of Heat Cramps:
      • Stop activity and move to a cool location
      • Drink sports drink or juice, or water if the others are not available.
      • Gently stretch and massage muscles.
  2. Heat Exhaustion: Sweating; thirst; pale, cool skin; weakness; headache; dizziness; nausea; vomiting; muscle cramps. Develops when you ignore early signs of heat-related emergency or illness. Condition can worsen quickly
    • Treatment of Heat Exhaustion:
      • Stop activity and lie down in a cool location
      • Remove clothing.
      • Cool the person (cool water bath, spray, fan)
      • Drink sports drink or juice, or water if the others are not available.
  3. Heat Stroke: The body can no longer control its temperature; the body temperature rises rapidly. This is a life-threatening emergency.
    • Signs and Symptoms of Heat Stroke:
      • High body temperature.
      • Dry or moist, flushed skin.
      • Confusion, dizziness.
      • Slurred speech.
      • Seizures. Severe headache. Fast breathing and pulse.
      • Unresponsiveness.
    • Treatment of Heat Stroke:
      • Call 9-1-1 (activate EMS).
      • Quickly cool the victim by immersing in water up to neck; spraying, sponging or showering with cool water; placing ice packs against the groin, armpits and sides of the neck.